Bibliography - Monographs and Journal Articles, and a Selection of Manuscript Collections
The bibliography listed below was compiled by Dr. Philip J. Schwarz, Professor Emeritus of History, Virginia Commonwealth University and a member of the Richmond Slave Trail Commission, for his article The Richmond Slave Trail: Richmond and the Slave Trade from July 2008. Additional resources were added to the Bibliography in the Spring of 2009.
A selection of Manuscript Collections associated with slavery in Richmond held at three local institutions are listed at the end.
If you have questions or suggestions for this bibliography, please contact Special Collections and Archives.
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Bibliography - Monographs and Journal Articles
Gates, Robbins L. The Making of Massive Resistance; Virginia's Politics of Public School Desegregation, 1954-1956. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, 1964.
Bancroft, Frederic. Slave Trading in the Old South. New York: Ungar, 1959.
Baptist, Edward E. “The Absent Subject: African-American Masculinity and Forced Migration to the Antebellum Plantation Frontier.” From Southern Manhood: Perspectives on Masculinity in the Old South, ed. Craig T. Friend and Lorri Glover. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2004, 136-73.
———. “‘Cuffy,’ ‘Fancy Maids,’ and ‘One-Eyed Men’: Rape, Commodification, and the Domestic Slave Trade in the United States.” American Historical Review v. 106 (December 2001): 1619-1650.
Before Freedom Came: African-American Life in the Antebellum South, ed. Edward D. C. Campbell, Jr. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991.
Berlin, Ira. Generations of Captivity: A History of African-American Slaves. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2003.
———. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1998.
Brewer, James H. The Confederate Negro: Virginia's Craftsmen and Military Laborers, 1861-1865. Durham: Duke University Press, 1969.
Brown, Elsa Barkley, and Gregg D. Kimball. "Mapping the Terrain of Black Richmond." Journal of Urban History v. 21 (March 1995): 296-346.
Bruce, Kathleen. Virginia Iron Manufacture in the Slave Era. New York: Century Co., 1930.
Calderhead, William. “How Extensive Was the Border State Slave Trade? A New Look.” Civil War History v. 18 (March 1972): 42-55.
———. “The Role of the Professional Slave Trader in a Slave Economy: Austin Woolfolk, A Case Study.” Civil War History v. 23 (September 1977): 195-211.
Chesson, Michael B. Richmond After the War, 1865-1890. Richmond: Virginia State Library, 1981.
Collins, Winfield. Domestic Slave Trade of the Southern States. New York: Broadway Pub. Co., 1904.
Corey, Charles H. History of the Richmond Theological Seminary, with Reminiscences of Thirty Years’ Work Among the Colored People of the South. Richmond: J. W. Randolph Co., 1895.
David, Paul, et. al. Reckoning with Slavery: A Critical Study in the Quantitative History of American Negro Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.
Davis, Jack E. "Changing Places: Slave Movement in the South." Historian v. 55 (Summer 1993): 657-76.
Dew, Charles B. Ironmaker to the Confederacy: Joseph R. Anderson and the Tredegar Iron Works. Richmond: Library of Virginia, 1999.
Deyle, Stephen. Carry Me Back: The Domestic Slave Trade in American Life. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
———. “The Domestic Slave Trade in America: The Lifeblood of the Southern Slave System.” The Chattel Principle: Internal Slave Trades in the Americas. Ed. Walter Johnson. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004, 91-116.
Egerton, Douglas R. Gabriel's Rebellion: The Virginia Slave Conspiracies of 1800 and 1802. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993.
Eggert, Gerald G. "Notes and Documents: A Pennsylvanian Visits the Richmond Slave Market." Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, v. 109 (October 1985): 571-76.
Eltis, David. The Rise of African Slavery in the Americas. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.
Ford, Lacy. “Reconsidering the Internal Slave Trade: Paternalism, Markets, and the Character of the Old South,” The Chattel Principle: Internal Slave Trades in the Americas. Ed. Walter Johnson. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2004, 143-64.
Freehling, Alison Goodyear. Drift Toward Dissolution: The Virginia Slavery Debate of 1831-1832. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1982.
Freudenberger, Herman, and Jonathan B. Pritchett. "The Domestic United States Slave Trade: New Evidence." Journal of Interdisciplinary History v. 21 (Winter 1991): 447-77.
Goldfield, David R. "Black Life in Old South Cities." from Before Freedom Came: African-American Life in the Antebellum South, ed. Edward D. C. Campbell Jr. and Kym S. Rice. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1991, 123-53.
———. Region, Race, and Cities: Interpreting the Urban South. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press , 1997.
———. Urban Growth in the Age of Sectionalism Virginia, 1847-1861. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1977.
Goldin, Claudia Dale. Urban Slavery in the American South, 1820-1860: A Quantitative History. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1976.
Green, Rodney D. "Black Tobacco Factory Workers and Social Conflict in Antebellum Richmond: Were Slavery and Urban Industry Really Compatible?" Slavery & Abolition v. 8, no. 2 (1987): 183-203.
———. "Industrial Transition in the Land of Chattel Slavery: Richmond, Virginia, 1820-60." International Journal of Urban and Regional Research v. 8, no. 2 (1984): 238-53.
———. "Urban Industry, Black Resistance, and Racial Restriction in the Antebellum South: A General Model and a Case Study in Urban Virginia." Ph.D. diss., American University, 1980.
Gudmestad, Robert H. "The Richmond Slave Market, 1840-1860." M.A. Thesis, University of Richmond, 1993.
———. A Troublesome Commerce: The Transformation of the Interstate Slave Trade. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press , 2003.
Gutman, Herbert, and Richard Sutch. “The Slave Family: Protected Agent of Capitalist Masters or Victims of the Slave Trade?” From Reckoning with Slavery: A Critical Study in the Quantitative History of American Negro Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976, 94-133.
Johnson, Walter. Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000.
Jones, Howard. "The Peculiar Institution and National Honor: The Case of the Creole Slave Revolt." Civil War History v. 21 (March 1975): 28-50.
Kimball, Gregg D. American City, Southern Place: A Cultural History of Antebellum Richmond. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000.
Kulikoff, Allan. “Origins of Afro-American Society in Tidewater Maryland and Virginia, 1700 to 1790.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d Ser., v. 35 (Apr., 1978), 233-35.
______ Tobacco and Slaves: The Development of Southern Cultures in the Chesapeake, 1680-1800. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1986.
——— “Uprooted Peoples: Black Migrants in the Age of the American Revolution, 1790-1820.” Slavery and Freedom in the Age of the American Revolution. Ed. Ira Berlin and Ronald Hoffman. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1983, 143-171.
Laird, Matthew. "Preliminary Archaeological Investigation of the Lumpkin’s Jail Site (44He1053) Richmond Virginia." Williamsburg, Va., 2006.
Lightner, David L. “The Interstate Slave Trade in Antislavery Politics.” Civil War History, v. 36 (1990), 119-36.
Link, William A. Roots of Secession: Slavery and Politics in Antebellum Virginia. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2003.
McColley, Robert. Slavery and Jeffersonian Virginia. 2nd ed., Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1973.
McLeod, Norman C. "Free Labor in a Slave Society: Richmond, Virginia." Ph.D. diss., Howard University, 1991.
Manarin, Louis H., and Clifford Dowdey. The History of Henrico County. Charlottesville, University Press of Virginia, 1984.
Morgan, Philip D. Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Low Country. Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press, 1998.
Naragon, Michael Douglas. "Ballots, Bullets, and Blood: The Political Transformation of Richmond, Virginia, 1850-1874." Ph.D. diss., University of Pittsburgh, 1996.
O'Brien, John T. "Factory, Church, and Community: Blacks in Antebellum Richmond." Journal of Southern History 44 (November 1978): 509-36.
———. From Bondage to Citizenship: The Richmond Black Community, 1865-1867. New York, Garland, 1990.
———. "Reconstruction in Richmond: White Restoration and Black Protest, April-June 1865." Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 89 (July 1981): 259-81.
Rabinowitz, Howard N. Race Relations in the Urban South, 1865-1890. Oxford University Press, Athens, 1996.
———. Southern Black Leaders of the Reconstruction Era. Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1982.
Rachleff, Peter. Black Labor in the South: Richmond, Virginia, 1865-1890. Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1984.
Ragsdale, Bruce A. A Planter’s Republic: The Search for Economic Independence in Revolutionary Virginia. Madison, Wisc., Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1996.
Rives, Nancy Jawish. "Nurseries of Mischief: Origin and Operations of the Underground Railroad in Richmond, Virginia, 1848-1860." M.A. thesis, Virginia Commonwealth University, 1998.
Rose, Willie Lee. A Documentary History of Slavery in North America. University of Georgia Press, Athens, Ga., 1999.
Rothman, Adam. “The Domestication of the Slave Trade in the United States.” The Chattel Principle: Internal Slave Trades in the Americas. Ed. Walter Johnson. New Haven, Conn., Yale University Press, 2004, 32-54.
Ruggles, Jeffrey. "Go and Get a Box: Henry Brown's Escape from Slavery, 1849." Virginia Cavalcade v. 47, no. Spring (1999): 84-95.
———. The Unboxing of Henry Brown. Richmond, Library of Virginia., 2003.
Schecter, Patricia A. ""Free and Slave Labor in the Old South: The Tredegar Ironworkers' Strike of 1847." Labor History v. 35 (Spring 1994): 165-86.
Schnittman, Suzanne. "Black Workers in Antebellum Richmond." In Race, Class, and Community in Southern Labor History, ed. Gary M. Fink and Merl E. Reed. Tuscaloosa, Ala., University of Alabama Press, 1994.
———. "Slavery in Virginia's Urban Tobacco Industry, 1840-1860." Ph.D. diss., University of Rochester, 1987.
Schwarz, Philip J. Gabriel’s Rebellion: a Documentary History. Forthcoming, University of Virginia Press.
Sidbury, James. Ploughshares Into Swords: Race, Rebellion, and Identity in Gabriel's Virginia, 1730-1810. Cambridge, Eng., and New York, Cambridge University Press, 1997.
———. "Slave Artisans in Richmond, Virginia, 1780-1810." American Artisans: Crafting Social Identity, 1750-1850, ed. Paul A. Gilje, Howard B. Rock, and Robert Asher. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995.
Smith, Justin Almerin. Memoir of Rev. Nathaniel Colver, D. D. Boston, 1873.
Sorensen, Leni Ashmore. "’Absconded’: Fugitive Slaves in the ‘Daybook of the Richmond Police Guard, 1834-1844.’" Ph.D. diss., College of William and Mary, 2005.
———. "'So That I Get Her Again': African American Slave Women Runaways in Selected Richmond, Virginia Newspapers, 1830-1860, and the Richmond, Virginia Police Guard Daybook, 1834-1843." Master’s thesis, College of William and Mary, 1996.
Starobin, Robert S. Industrial Slavery in the Old South. New York, Oxford University Press, 1970.
Still, William. The Underground Railroad. A Record of Facts, Authentic Narratives, Letters, &c., Narrating the Hardships, Hair-Breadth Escapes and Death Struggles of the Slaves in Their Efforts for Freedom, as Related by Themselves and Others, or Witnessed by the Author; Together with Sketches of Some of the Largest Stockholders and Most Liberal Aiders and Advisers of the Road. Philadelphia, 1872.
Sweig, Donald. “Reassessing the Human Dimension of the Interstate Slave Trade.” Prologue: The Journal of the National Archives v. 12 (Spring 1980): 5-21.
Tadman, Michael. “The Interregional Slave Trade in the History and Myth-Making of the U.S. South.” The Chattel Principle: Internal Slave Trades in the Americas. Ed. Walter Johnson. New Haven, Conn., Yale University Press , 2004, 117-42.
———. Speculators and Slaves: Masters, Traders, and Slaves in the Old South. Madison, Wisc., University of Wisconsin Press 1989.
Takagi, Midori. Rearing Wolves to Our Own Destruction: Slavery in Richmond, Virginia, 1782-1865. Charlottesville, Va., University Press of Virginia, 1999.
The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade: A Database on CD-ROM. Cambridge, Eng., Yale University Press, 1999.
Troutman, Phillip, “Geographies of Family and Market: Virginia’s Domestic Slave Trade in the Nineteenth Century,” http://fisher.lib.virginia.edu/collections/stats/slavetrade/.
———. "Grapevine in the Slave Market: Geopolitical Literacy in the 1841 Creole Ship Revolt." The Chattel Principle: Domestic Slave Trades in the Americas, ed. Walter Johnson. New Haven, Conn., 2004, 203-33.
———. “Slave Trade and Sentiment in Antebellum Virginia.” Ph.D. diss., University of Virginia, 2000.
Tyler-McGraw, Marie, and Gregg D. Kimball. In Bondage and Freedom: Antebellum Black Life in Richmond, Virginia. Richmond, Va., Valentine Museum ; [Chapel Hill, N.C.] : Distributed by the University of North Carolina Press 1988.
Wade, Richard C. Slavery in the Cities; the South, 1820-1860. New York, Oxford University Press, 1964.
Walsh, Lorena S. “The Chesapeake Slave Trade.” William and Mary Quarterly, 3d Ser., 58 (January 2001): 139-70.
Ward Harry M., and Harold E. Greer, Jr. Richmond During the Revolution, 1775-83. Charlottesville, University Press of Virginia, 1977.
Windley, Lathan A. Runaway Slave Advertisements: A Documentary History from the 1730s to 1790, Westport, Conn. : Greenwood Press, 1983
Weis, Tracey M. "Negotiating Freedom: Domestic Service and the Landscape of Labor and Household Relations in Richmond, Virginia, 1850-1880." Ph. D. diss., Rutgers, New Brunswick, 1994.
Wolff, Cynthia Griffin. "Passing Beyond the Middle Passage: Henry 'Box' Brown's Translations of Slavery." Massachusetts Review 37 (Spring 1996): 45-55.
Zaborney, John Joseph. "Slaves For Rent: Slave Hiring in Virginia." Ph.D. diss., University of Maine, 1997.
Bibliography - A Selection of Manuscript Collections:
Below is a selection of manuscript collections specifically related to Slavery in Richmond, Virginia from three Richmond area repositories - the Valentine Museum Richmod History Center, the Virginia Historical Society, and the Library of Virginia. Links to these institutions are provided. Researchers are encouraged to contact these institutions to make arrangements to view these collections. These institutions have other resources related to slavery in Virginia - these collections listed below are highlighted because of their relevance to Richmond.
There are other libraries and museums that also have manuscript collections related to slavery in Virginia and Richmond. Links to those institutions and a brief description of the collections they contain will be added to this site shortly.
The Valentine Museum Richmond History Center's archives and library are open to researchers by appointment only, Tuesday through Friday from 12 pm to 4 pm. Collections especially pertaining to Richmond slavery include:
MS. C 18
James J. Newman Papers, 1846-1867
Approx. 208 items
Farmer of King William County.
Primarily receipts and accounts for various services and products including dry goods, farm implements, medical services, taxes, and the shipping and sale of Newman's crops including corn, wheat and potatoes. Includes accounts with P. H. Slaughter and Son and J. Lipscomb. Also includes papers on Newman's Confederate service and his appointment to a county slave patrol.
MS. C 7
Sedgwick and Mussen Family Papers, 1846-1903
Letters, business papers, and documents relating to the Sedgwick and Mussen families who migrated to Virginia from Ireland in the early 19th century. Much of the correspondence is to or from Margaret A. Mussen and John R. Sedgwick, who were married in Richmond by 1867. Over 100 documents related to John R. Sedgwick's purchase and sale of slaves from 1856 to 1863 in Mobile, Alabama, North Carolina, Virginia, and Richmond.
MS. C 10
Charles Talbott Papers, 1842-1883
Richmond manufacturer. Primarily receipts for personal items, land, and slaves. Gift of Mrs. Carrie Armistead Jones, granddaughter of Charles Talbott, 1951.
MS. C 30
Adams-Smith Family Papers, 1786-1845
1 Linear Foot (Approx. 426 items)
Correspondence, accounts, cancelled checks, receipts, miscellaneous business papers, legal documents concerning the settle of the estate of John Adams Smith (1802-1864), bank, of Richmond, VA, and other papers of various members of the Adams family.
MS. C 51
Tyndall, Allberger, van Horn Family Papers, 1831-1890s
1 Box (1/4 Linear Foot)
Wedding invitations, announcements, school reports, accounts, receipts, and correspondence relating to the Tyndall, Allberger, and van Horn families. Legal, business, and personal papers of Mrs. Frances Tyndall, her son Mark Anthony Tyndall, and her daughter Frances K. Tyndall Van Horn. Included are four receipts for slaves bought by Mark A. and Frances K. Tyndall.
MS. C 56
Lawson Nunnally Papers, 1765, 1838-1893
Approx. 95 items
Banker of Richmond, Virginia. Contains correspondence, accounts, and other legal and financial papers mostly concerning Nunnally's business as trustee of various estates. Includes several documents concerning the hiring and ownership of slaves. Also contains a few notes and memoranda about the Richmond and Danville Richmond Company, and a genealogy of the Mason family in manuscript.
MS. FB 117
Ledger, 1835, 1848-1850
Includes entries for 1849 and 1850 headed "Negroes sent south by Robt Lumpkin to S. B. Jones", with names of slaves, costs and sales prices. Used during operation of Lumpkin's Slave Jail on Wall Street near 15th and Franklin.
The Virginia Historical Society's library is open Tuesday through Saturday, 10 am – 5 pm. A researcher may want to begin with their Guide to African American Manuscripts in the Collection of the Virginia Historical Society based on the second edition of the published guide (2002) but has been regularly updated since then.
Collections especially pertaining to Richmond slavery include:
Benjamin Brand Papers, 1779-1863.
Brand was a merchant and an officer in the Richmond & Manchester Auxiliary of the Virginia Colonization Society. The collection includes information concerning the emigration of freedmen to Liberia and Lott Cary documentation among a number of related materials.
Richmond City Sergeant's Register, 1841-1846, two volumes.
The register records the taking up of fugitive slaves and the incarceration of African Americans who were accused of being slaves but proclaimed their freedom by birth, manumission, or self-purchase.
William Gray Papers, 1819-1875.
Gray was a Richmond tobacco manufacturer and shipper. The collections includes information on industrial slavery, the slave trade, and fugitive slaves.
The Library of Virginia is open Monday - Saturday 9:00 AM until 5:00 PM. Of particular interest to researchers may be their Resources for African-American Genealogical Research - the Silas Omohundro manuscript collection may also be of interest to those researching slavery in Richmond:
Omohundro, Silas, Richmond City 7 vols. and 45 items
Silas Omohundro (1807-1864) was the son of Richard Omohundro of Fluvanna County, Virginia. By 1850 he had moved to Richmond. The Richmond city directory for 1851 lists Omohundro as the operator of a private jail located in the alley on the west side of Wall Street. Subsequent entries list him as a slave trader with offices at 17th and Broad streets or between Main and Franklin streets on Wall Street. The collection includes bank balance books, records of boarding charges for slaves, household expense accounts, farm accounts, and records relating to the administration of Omohundro's estate. Of particular interest are the volumes "money Paid Out and received, No. 1" 1851-1877, which include records of Omohundro's boarding charges for slaves, with some records of sales, 1851-1864.